The day of AGA commenced with a seminar opened in the morning by Capt. Ivan CONEV,
Chairman of BSMA. He welcomed and thanked all speakers and assistance for their coming, being
sure that the speechs will be very useful for all captains. He also made a presentation of Erasmus+
Project ENDORSEME for which there he wrote a paper published in this CESMA Newsletter
Then some welcome words Mr Ivaylo MARONOV, Mayor of District Asparuhovo followed
by Professor Kalin KALIVOV, PhD, Vice-rector of Naval Academy who pointed out that the
‘Nikola Vaptsarov’ Academy is 142 years old, and is one of the most modern Technology University
of Bulgaria, and with actually 20% of foreign students.
Capt. Dimitar DIMITROV, President of CESMA, addressed also some words, mentioned the
most important problems of captains: war between Russia and Ukrainia which concerns not only
our Ukrainian colleagues not able to travel and to come back to their country, but also all people
in Europe; dangerous areas on sea such as Black Sea and Gulf of Guinea; the consequences of the
Covid pandemic with difficulties for crews to be able to get shore leaves when at call; alternative
fuels and necessity for crew to be well prepared and trained for; wellbeing of seafarers for which
it would be better to speak of “human capiptal” instead of “human element”.
1st speaker, Mr Richard FRANCKE, Senior Manager MAN Energy Solutions
Title: Moving bug things to zero
Zero is a big number when it comes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However,
250 years of experience in the advanced engineering of complex systems have prepared us well for
what is, without a doubt, our biggest challenge yet.
MAN Energy Solutions is driving the hydrogen economy. We can make ships run on green
fuels; we power heating, cooling, and electricity systems with climate-friendly solutions; and
we help industries all over the world to capture and reuse CO2 – instead of emitting it into the

Key technologies driving to zero emissions:
PEM Electrolysis: Making green hydrogen from renewable energies. In PEM (Proton
Exchange Membrane) electrolysis, green hydrogen is produced from water and renewable energy.
As one of the largest energy providers in
Austria, Energie Steiermark generates power
from 100 % renewable sources. The company is
building a renewable gas field that will use a
power-to-gas method to convert excess energy
to green hydrogen, which can be used as energy
and/or can be stored if not immediately required.
The H-TEC SYSTEMS PEM electrolyzer
will split water at the site and extract 450 kg of
hydrogen gas daily. The hydrogen will be fed
into the natural-gas grid or supplied directly
from the site. This green energy will power a
variety of requirements, from refueling cars to industrial and domestic application. For domestic
use, the hydrogen gas generated will supply the equivalent energy demand of 60 single-family
homes per year. Storage of renewable energy remains a challenge; the conversion into hydrogen
and synthetic fuels using MAN PtX technology allows such energy to be stored indefinitely in
chemical form.
Green Engines: Powering clean shipping and energy generation. MAN provides the shipping
and energy industry with green engines that can operate on climate-neutral fuels such as synthetic
natural gas, methanol, or ammonia. Our power plants’ engines are hydrogen-ready.
In 2024, A.P. Møller-Mærsk will launch the first in a series of 12 large carbon-neutral container
vessels. These ocean-going ships will be powered by green methanol in dual-fuel engines made
by MAN Energy Solutions. The launch will mark the first time ever that a very large container
vessel is powered by a carbon-neutral fuel. This milestone sets the stage for new momentum in the
passage of maritime shipping to a greener industry.
In the energy generation field, our engines help to balance the grid, enabling it to take up as
much green energy as possible. Replacing coal-fired plants with our technology, we reduce carbon
emissions – e.g. with our gas-fired CHP plant in Chemnitz, saving an annual 50,000 metric tons of
CO2 for our customer ‘eins – Energie in Sachsen’ and it is ready to be run on biogas.
Retrofits: Upgrading the worldwide engine fleet. MAN Energy Solutions retrofitting
technology rebuilds ship and power plant engines into dual-fuel machines that can also be run on
green synthetic fuels – gaseous or liquid. Retrofitting an engine extends the life cycle substantially,
thus abating up to 97 % of CO2 compared to e.g. building a new ship.

The ElbBLUE container ship represents a
groundbreaking turning point in the
decarbonization of the maritime industry. In 2021,
it became the world’s first container ship to run on
climate-neutral synthetic natural gas.
Retrofitted from an HFO to a MAN dualfuel propulsion engine, the ship is powered by a
mix of climate-neutral synthetic and fossil liquid
natural gas.
In September 2021, the ElbBLUE bunkered
20 tons of green synthetic natural gas and
demonstrated a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of almost one third during its first trip
with the new fuel mix. The synthetic natural gas had been produced at the e-gas plant in Werlte,
Germany, the first Power-to-X plant commissioned by MAN as early as 2013.
The Turkish company Karadeniz is famous the world over for providing floating power
plants to areas in need of electricity. MAN Energy Solutions is helping Karadeniz to improve its
environmental footprint by retrofitting heavy-fuel-oil engines to dual fuel.
Carbon Capture and Storage: Capturing and Processing CO2rofitting technology. To prevent
CO2 from entering the atmosphere, MAN Energy Solutions offers carbon capture and processing
technologies that support the extraction and compression of CO2. Once captured, CO2 can be
stored and reused to form the backbone of a circular carbon economy.
As one of the biggest producers and distributors of building materials in the world, Heidelberg
Materials aims to make its entire product portfolio climate-neutral by 2050.
Soon, Norcem will have the world’s first cement facility to realize a carbon capture plant
in Norway. In 2024, the subsidiary of Heidelberg Materials will commission a system in Brevik
developed by MAN Energy Solutions and Aker Carbon Capture. The goal of the two partners is to
develop even more efficient capture processes – one key to this is heat recovery. “Carbon Capture
Heat Recovery” (CCHR®) uses heat pump technology based on the MAN CO2 compressor, thus
reducing the capture plant’s energy consumption by 30 %.
Also using carbon capture, the cement facility will capture, compress, and liquefy 400,000
tons of CO2 per year – around half of its total carbon dioxide emissions – and transport it by ships
to an underground storage facility.
Heat Pumps: Unleashing the power of heat. Instead of burning fuel for heating and cooling
purposes, heat pumps make efficient use of manifold heat sources, such as lakes, rivers, sea,
wastewater, industrial waste heat, geothermal, or ambient air. Running on green electricity, they
have virtually zero emissions. Our large-scale heat pumps are comprised of compressors, expanders,
and companders. Using MAN’s electrothermal energy storage (ETES) technology, customers can
add the option to generate, store, and reconvert heat or cold.

The Danish port city Esbjerg aims to become
carbon-neutral by 2030 and is transforming
major infrastructure to achieve this goal. The
city will decarbonize its district heating supply
using ETES heat pump technology from MAN
Energy Solutions to replace a coal-fired
system. The pumps are part of an industrialsized, turnkey heat generation approach. They
will be installed in a new emission-free district
heating plant and will be able to provide
235,000 MWh of heat to 100,000 local inhabitants each year.
2nd speaker, Mr Stanislas MATEEV, Head of Cargil-Varna
Title: Cargill Ocean Transportation
First Cargill is the world’s leading dry bulk freight player with 54 Cape, 246 Panamax,
171 Supramax and 139 Handy size vessels in 2021. Cargill is Cargo Owner, Commodity Trader,
Freight Trader and Vessel Operator.
Cargill 2050 Pathway to Zero
2017: Climate targets established – Improved and modernized fleet.
2018: CO2 Challenge to find new technologies – Prioritized ships with better RightShip
2019: Global Maritime Forum foundation – Getting to Zero Coalition signed – Ship efficiency
monitoring and optimization platform rolled out – First energy-saving devices on Cargill fleet –
Partnership with Maersk Tankers and Mitsui for NJORD.
2020: Partnership with Rainmaking in Singapore – Leading role in development of Sea
Cargo Charter – Partnership with ZeroNorth – Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller Center for Zero Carbon
Shipping launch.
2021: Continued to grow parceling business – Continued to optimize wind propulsion BAR
Technologies partnership – Continued to explore new energy-saving technologies – CO2 emissions
methodology aligned with Sea Cargo Charter – EU Horizon 2020 project CHEK kick-off.
Now: Pilot wind propulsion solutions – Pilot zero carbon fuels – Improve Cargill fleet to meet
new industry standards – Continue to work with the Global Maritime Forum and other industry
associations – Continuous improvement on energy-saving devices and hull surfaces, optimization
in operations and parceling.
Future 2020’s: Continuous improvement on energy-saving devices and hull surfaces,
optimization in operations, parceling and supply chain – Implement green corridors with
customers – Scale wind assisted propulsion systems – Expand use of biofuel: ore vessels more
locations – Scale zero carbon fuel vessels to 5% of Cargill fleet – Reduce carbon intensity of
Cargill activity 30% by 2030 vs 2017.
Future 2030’s: Rapid scale up to zero carbon fuel vessels to ensure alignment with 1.5 degree
warming goals – Normalisation of wind assisted propulsion – Continuous improvement of energy
saving, operational optimization and supply chain. Goal : Zero carbon shipping by 2050. Decarbonization strategy (3 steps): • Immediate: Digitalization – Energy-saving devices • Mid-term: Biofuels – Wind propulsion • Long term: Other new fuels 5 3rd speaker, Mr Nick MARKOV, Head of Bulgarian Ship Hydrodynamic Center, Institute of Metal Science Equipment and Technologies “Academy A. Balevski – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Title: Recent BSCH Contributions to Maritime Innovation BSHC, established in 1976, performs fundamental and applied research, training and education in the areas of ship hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, water transport, ocean and coastal engineering, sea and river crisis and disasters, environmental protection, renewable energy sources, national security and defence etc., in favour of the society. Experimental Facilities in Varna: Open Water Area (170 x 160 m) Ocean Bassin (64 x 40 x 2.5 m) Wind Tunnel (0.8 x 0.5 m) Towing Tanks Cavitation Tunnel with 2 sections (Deep Water: 200 x 16 x 6.5 m) (0.6 x 0.6 m & 1.4 x 0.7 m) (Shallow Water: 200 x 16 x <1.5 m)

Research Activities

  • Ship Powering Performance
  • Ship Maneuvering
  • Ship Seakeeping
  • Powering in Shallow Ware
  • Propellers & Cavitation
  • Aerodynamics
  • Offshore Floating Platforms
  • Marine Energy Conversion Devices
  • Aquaculture Structures
  • Submarines
    Innovative Research
  • Energy Saving Devices: 90+ test programs with experimental validation and final stage
  • Autonomous Vehicles
  • Wave-Energy Drive (WE Drive): Improve the weather factor by using the energy of ship
    motions in waves to counter the added resistance. WE-Drive may supplement the extra engine
    power needed in a seaway, the efficiency (EEDI) may be improved by 11% to 18% depending ship
    type and displacement.
  • Wind-Assisted Ships with a Soft Sail: Estimated 11% efficiency increase for a realistic
    vessel along the Varna-Poti route.
  • Quantum Propulsion (Q-Drive): A propulsion method based on quantum tunneling – no
    chemical or nuclear reactions. The Ammonia molecule (NH3) resembles a piston – why burn
    it? The nitrogen atom (N) tunnels ~30 billion times a second. The NH3 molecule is polar, so the
    micro-pistons can be oriented with an external electrostatic field, with a NIR laser and mechanically
    (turbine flow). The collisions of ~1020 oriented molecular “pistons” may result in a propulsive
  • 4th speaker, Mr Delyan SHTEREV, Navibulgar Training Manager
  • Title: Cargo Liquefaction and the Impact on Bulk Carriers Safety
  • The world fleet increased from 80 000 ships in the 1990’s till 130 000 ships in 2022. However,
  • the total loss of ships decreased from 127 in 2012 till 54 in 2021, which represents 17% of the
  • world fleet.
  • 7
  • What improvements brought such a decreasing curve:
  • Ship design;
  • Technology;
  • Regulations;
  • And the Seafarers Safety Culture (Organization Commitment, Management Involvement,
    Reporting System, Employee Empowerment)
  • 5th speaker, Mr Yavor VELCHEV, Founder and Owner of SHIPPOSSIBLE,
  • BSMW Legal Adviser
  • Title: Marine Environment and Shipping
  • Marine Biodiversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBJN), International agreement
  • regulating the use and exploitation of the world’s oceans beyond the limits of national jurisdiction
  • conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity prevent or mitigate the environmental
  • damage by human activities.
  • Ratified by 60 Member States, goals are Capacity-Building and Technology Transfer for
  • States, creation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs),
  • Prevention of overfishing. Ships are subject to regulations and restrictions and should carry records
  • of the use and disposal of pollutants.
  • Treaty liability rules: ship owners are responsible for damage caused by their vessels, ships
  • must maintain insurance to cover liability for damage to the marine environment.
  • Strict liability: ship owners liable for any damage caused by their vessels, regardless of
  • whether they were at fault. Ship owners must have the financial resources / insurance to pay for
  • any damage caused by their vessels.
  • The “end of dirty fuels” in shipping was agreed upon on 22 March by all the EU bodies and
  • Member States for at least 2% of the fuels e-fuels derived from renewable electricity from 2025,
  • then increasing every five years till 80% from 2050 (6% from 2030, 14.5% from 2035, 31% from
  • 2040, 62% from 2045).
  • In order to have zero-emission while at berth, ports should propose either on-shore power
  • supply (OPS) or alternative zero-emission technologies. For container ships and passenger ships,
  • it should be proposed an on-shore power supply for all electricity needs while moored at the
  • quayside in major EU ports as of 2030.
  • A – Marine Insurance
  • The Poseidon Principles for Marine Insurance recognize the role insurers play in the shipping
  • industry and promote responsible environmental stewardship throughout the maritime value chain.
  • They set a benchmark for what it means to be a responsible insurer in the maritime sector and
  • provide actionable guidance on how to achieve this.
  • The Poseidon Principles for Marine Insurance are consistent with the policies and ambitions
  • of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and they have also chosen to take steps toward
  • alignment with the Paris Agreement.
  • Enabling Seafarers to Mutual Endorsement” (ENDORSEME)
  • The International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the first standard for Vocational
  • Education and Training (VET) programs for merchant navy officers in 1978. Seafarers are
  • trained and certified by national administrations complying with the minimum standards set by
  • International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch keeping for Seafarers
  • (STCW). Despite these efforts there are no mechanisms for monitoring how these standards are
  • being applied in various nations and yet there is an issue for seafarers to get their certificates
  • accepted/endorsed when they are attempting to work from one flag state to another. European
  • Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) has started to monitor STCW compliance to contribute to safer
  • operations, however, the issue for one seafarer having a certification from one country flag not to
  • be able to work in other country flag still exists as there are still many countries that do not have
  • mutual recognition or endorsement in place. There have been several attempts in the past to unify
  • the certifications and endorsements however it did not resolve the issue in full.